上一篇日志:PHP使用gettext扩展实现国际化(l18n)与本地化(l10n)中讲到使用PHP的gettext扩展来实现多国语言包。

但实际项目中发现一个难以解决的问题:每次更改po文件生成二进制的mo文件后,并不能更新Apache对语言包的高速缓存,而gettext并未 提供手动刷新缓存的方法,必须重启Apache才能使更改生效。最终我决定更改实现方式,使用Wordpress中的多语言 类:gettext_reader。

 

WordPress实现多语言有两个文件:gettext.php (主文件),streams.php(对二进制数据[language.mo]进行处理)

先看看这两个文件:

gettext.php

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<?php
/** * PHP-Gettext External Library: gettext_reader class * * @package External * @subpackage PHP-gettext * * @internal Copyright (c) 2003 Danilo Segan <[email protected]>. Copyright (c) 2005 Nico Kaiser <[email protected]>   This file is part of PHP-gettext.   PHP-gettext is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.   PHP-gettext is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with PHP-gettext; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA   */

/** * Provides a simple gettext replacement that works independently from * the system's gettext abilities. * It can read MO files and use them for translating strings. * The files are passed to gettext_reader as a Stream (see streams.php) * * This version has the ability to cache all strings and translations to * speed up the string lookup. * While the cache is enabled by default, it can be switched off with the * second parameter in the constructor (e.g. whenusing very large MO files * that you don't want to keep in memory) */
class gettext_reader
{
	//public:
	var $error = 0; // public variable that holds error code (0 if no error)

	//private:
	var $BYTEORDER = 0; // 0: low endian, 1: big endian
	var $STREAM = NULL;
	var $short_circuit = false;
	var $enable_cache = false;
	var $originals = NULL; // offset of original table
	var $translations = NULL; // offset of translation table
	var $pluralheader = NULL; // cache header field for plural forms
	var $select_string_function = NULL; // cache function, which chooses plural forms
	var $total = 0; // total string count
	var $table_originals = NULL; // table for original strings (offsets)
	var $table_translations = NULL; // table for translated strings (offsets)
	var $cache_translations = NULL; // original -> translation mapping

	/* Methods */

	/** * Reads a 32bit Integer from the Stream * * @access private * @return Integer from the Stream */
	function readint()
	{
		if ($this->BYTEORDER == 0)
		{
			// low endian
			$low_end = unpack('V', $this->STREAM->read(4));
			return array_shift($low_end);
		}
		else
		{
			// big endian
			$big_end = unpack('N', $this->STREAM->read(4));
			return array_shift($big_end);
		}
	}

	/** * Reads an array of Integers from the Stream * * @param int count How many elements should be read * @return Array of Integers */
	function readintarray($count)
	{
		if ($this->BYTEORDER == 0)
		{
			// low endian
			return unpack('V' . $count, $this->STREAM->read(4 * $count));
		}
		else
		{
			// big endian
			return unpack('N' . $count, $this->STREAM->read(4 * $count));
		}
	}

	/** * Constructor * * @param object Reader the StreamReader object * @param boolean enable_cache Enable or disable caching of strings (default on) */
	function gettext_reader($Reader, $enable_cache = true)
	{
		// If there isn't a StreamReader, turn on short circuit mode.
		if (!$Reader || isset($Reader->error))
		{
			$this->short_circuit = true;
			return;
		}

		// Caching can be turned off
		$this->enable_cache = $enable_cache;

		// $MAGIC1 = (int)0x950412de; //bug in PHP 5.0.2, see https://savannah.nongnu.org/bugs/?func=detailitem&item_id=10565
		$MAGIC1 = (int) -1794895138;
		// $MAGIC2 = (int)0xde120495; //bug
		$MAGIC2 = (int) -569244523;
		// 64-bit fix
		$MAGIC3 = (int) 2500072158;

		$this->STREAM = $Reader;
		$magic = $this->readint();
		if ($magic == $MAGIC1 || $magic == $MAGIC3)
		{ // to make sure it works for 64-bit platforms
			$this->BYTEORDER = 0;
		}
		elseif ($magic == ($MAGIC2 & 0xFFFFFFFF))
		{
			$this->BYTEORDER = 1;
		}
		else
		{
			$this->error = 1; // not MO file
			return false;
		}

		// FIXME: Do we care about revision? We should.
		$revision = $this->readint();

		$this->total = $this->readint();
		$this->originals = $this->readint();
		$this->translations = $this->readint();
	}

	/** * Loads the translation tables from the MO file into the cache * If caching is enabled, also loads all strings into a cache * to speed up translation lookups * * @access private */
	function load_tables()
	{
		if (is_array($this->cache_translations) && is_array($this->table_originals) && is_array($this->table_translations))
			return;

		/* get original and translations tables */
		$this->STREAM->seekto($this->originals);
		$this->table_originals = $this->readintarray($this->total * 2);
		$this->STREAM->seekto($this->translations);
		$this->table_translations = $this->readintarray($this->total * 2);

		if ($this->enable_cache)
		{
			$this->cache_translations = array();
			/* read all strings in the cache */
			for ($i = 0; $i < $this->total; $i++)
			{
				$this->STREAM->seekto($this->table_originals[$i * 2 + 2]);
				$original = $this->STREAM->read($this->table_originals[$i * 2 + 1]);
				$this->STREAM->seekto($this->table_translations[$i * 2 + 2]);
				$translation = $this->STREAM->read($this->table_translations[$i * 2 + 1]);
				$this->cache_translations[$original] = $translation;
			}
		}
	}

	/** * Returns a string from the "originals" table * * @access private * @param int num Offset number of original string * @return string Requested string if found, otherwise '' */
	function get_original_string($num)
	{
		$length = $this->table_originals[$num * 2 + 1];
		$offset = $this->table_originals[$num * 2 + 2];
		if (!$length)
			return '';
		$this->STREAM->seekto($offset);
		$data = $this->STREAM->read($length);
		return (string) $data;
	}

	/** * Returns a string from the "translations" table * * @access private * @param int num Offset number of original string * @return string Requested string if found, otherwise '' */
	function get_translation_string($num)
	{
		$length = $this->table_translations[$num * 2 + 1];
		$offset = $this->table_translations[$num * 2 + 2];
		if (!$length)
			return '';
		$this->STREAM->seekto($offset);
		$data = $this->STREAM->read($length);
		return (string) $data;
	}

	/** * Binary search for string * * @access private * @param string string * @param int start (internally used in recursive function) * @param int end (internally used in recursive function) * @return int string number (offset in originals table) */
	function find_string($string, $start = -1, $end = -1)
	{
		if (($start == -1) or ($end == -1))
		{
			// find_string is called with only one parameter, set start end end
			$start = 0;
			$end = $this->total;
		}
		if (abs($start - $end) <= 1)
		{
			// We're done, now we either found the string, or it doesn't exist
			$txt = $this->get_original_string($start);
			if ($string == $txt)
				return $start;
			else
				return -1;
		}
		else if ($start > $end)
		{
			// start > end -> turn around and start over
			return $this->find_string($string, $end, $start);
		}
		else
		{
			// Divide table in two parts
			$half = (int) (($start + $end) / 2);
			$cmp = strcmp($string, $this->get_original_string($half));
			if ($cmp == 0)
				// string is exactly in the middle => return it
				return $half;
			else if ($cmp < 0)
				// The string is in the upper half
				return $this->find_string($string, $start, $half);
			else
				// The string is in the lower half
				return $this->find_string($string, $half, $end);
		}
	}

	/** * Translates a string * * @access public * @param string string to be translated * @return string translated string (or original, if not found) */
	function translate($string)
	{
		if ($this->short_circuit)
			return $string;
		$this->load_tables();

		if ($this->enable_cache)
		{
			// Caching enabled, get translated string from cache
			if (array_key_exists($string, $this->cache_translations))
				return $this->cache_translations[$string];
			else
				return $string;
		}
		else
		{
			// Caching not enabled, try to find string
			$num = $this->find_string($string);
			if ($num == -1)
				return $string;
			else
				return $this->get_translation_string($num);
		}
	}

	/** * Get possible plural forms from MO header * * @access private * @return string plural form header */
	function get_plural_forms()
	{
		// lets assume message number 0 is header
		// this is true, right?
		$this->load_tables();

		// cache header field for plural forms
		if (!is_string($this->pluralheader))
		{
			if ($this->enable_cache)
			{
				$header = $this->cache_translations[""];
			}
			else
			{
				$header = $this->get_translation_string(0);
			}
			$header .= "
"; //make sure our regex matches
			if (eregi("plural-forms: ([^
]*)
", $header, $regs))
				$expr = $regs[1];
			else
				$expr = "nplurals=2; plural=n == 1 ? 0 : 1;";

			// add parentheses
			// important since PHP's ternary evaluates from left to right
			$expr .= ';';
			$res = '';
			$p = 0;
			for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($expr); $i++)
			{
				$ch = $expr[$i];
				switch ($ch)
				{
					case '?' :
						$res .= ' ? (';
						$p++;
						break;
					case ':' :
						$res .= ') : (';
						break;
					case ';' :
						$res .= str_repeat(')', $p) . ';';
						$p = 0;
						break;
					default :
						$res .= $ch;
				}
			}
			$this->pluralheader = $res;
		}

		return $this->pluralheader;
	}

	/** * Detects which plural form to take * * @access private * @param n count * @return int array index of the right plural form */
	function select_string($n)
	{
		if (is_null($this->select_string_function))
		{
			$string = $this->get_plural_forms();
			if (preg_match("/npluralss*=s*(d+)s*;s*plurals*=s*(.*?);+/", $string, $matches))
			{
				$nplurals = $matches[1];
				$expression = $matches[2];
				$expression = str_replace("n", '$n', $expression);
			}
			else
			{
				$nplurals = 2;
				$expression = ' $n == 1 ? 0 : 1 ';
			}
			$func_body = " $plural = ($expression); return ($plural <= $nplurals)? $plural : $plural - 1;";
			$this->select_string_function = create_function('$n', $func_body);
		}
		return call_user_func($this->select_string_function, $n);
	}

	/** * Plural version of gettext * * @access public * @param string single * @param string plural * @param string number * @return translated plural form */
	function ngettext($single, $plural, $number)
	{
		if ($this->short_circuit)
		{
			if ($number != 1)
				return $plural;
			else
				return $single;
		}

		// find out the appropriate form
		$select = $this->select_string($number);

		// this should contains all strings separated by NULLs
		$key = $single . chr(0) . $plural;

		if ($this->enable_cache)
		{
			if (!array_key_exists($key, $this->cache_translations))
			{
				return ($number != 1) ? $plural : $single;
			}
			else
			{
				$result = $this->cache_translations[$key];
				$list = explode(chr(0), $result);
				return $list[$select];
			}
		}
		else
		{
			$num = $this->find_string($key);
			if ($num == -1)
			{
				return ($number != 1) ? $plural : $single;
			}
			else
			{
				$result = $this->get_translation_string($num);
				$list = explode(chr(0), $result);
				return $list[$select];
			}
		}
	}

}

?>

streams.php

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<?php
/** * PHP-Gettext External Library: StreamReader classes * * @package External * @subpackage PHP-gettext * * @internal Copyright (c) 2003, 2005 Danilo Segan <[email protected]>.   This file is part of PHP-gettext.   PHP-gettext is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.   PHP-gettext is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with PHP-gettext; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA   */

// Simple class to wrap file streams, string streams, etc.
// seek is essential, and it should be byte stream
class StreamReader
{
	// should return a string [FIXME: perhaps return array of bytes?]
	function read($bytes)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// should return new position
	function seekto($position)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// returns current position
	function currentpos()
	{
		return false;
	}

	// returns length of entire stream (limit for seekto()s)
	function length()
	{
		return false;
	}
}

class StringReader
{
	var $_pos;
	var $_str;

	function StringReader($str = '')
	{
		$this->_str = $str;
		$this->_pos = 0;
		// If string functions are overloaded, we need to use the mb versions
		$this->is_overloaded = ((ini_get("mbstring.func_overload") & 2) != 0) && function_exists('mb_substr');
	}

	function _substr($string, $start, $length)
	{
		if ($this->is_overloaded)
		{
			return mb_substr($string, $start, $length, 'ascii');
		}
		else
		{
			return substr($string, $start, $length);
		}
	}

	function _strlen($string)
	{
		if ($this->is_overloaded)
		{
			return mb_strlen($string, 'ascii');
		}
		else
		{
			return strlen($string);
		}
	}

	function read($bytes)
	{
		$data = $this->_substr($this->_str, $this->_pos, $bytes);
		$this->_pos += $bytes;
		if ($this->_strlen($this->_str) < $this->_pos)
			$this->_pos = $this->_strlen($this->_str);

		return $data;
	}

	function seekto($pos)
	{
		$this->_pos = $pos;
		if ($this->_strlen($this->_str) < $this->_pos)
			$this->_pos = $this->_strlen($this->_str);
		return $this->_pos;
	}

	function currentpos()
	{
		return $this->_pos;
	}

	function length()
	{
		return $this->_strlen($this->_str);
	}
}

class FileReader
{
	var $_pos;
	var $_fd;
	var $_length;

	function FileReader($filename)
	{
		if (file_exists($filename))
		{

			$this->_length = filesize($filename);
			$this->_pos = 0;
			$this->_fd = fopen($filename, 'rb');
			if (!$this->_fd)
			{
				$this->error = 3; // Cannot read file, probably permissions
				return false;
			}
		}
		else
		{
			$this->error = 2; // File doesn't exist
			return false;
		}
	}

	function read($bytes)
	{
		if ($bytes)
		{
			fseek($this->_fd, $this->_pos);

			// PHP 5.1.1 does not read more than 8192 bytes in one fread()
			// the discussions at PHP Bugs suggest it's the intended behaviour
			while ($bytes > 0)
			{
				$chunk = fread($this->_fd, $bytes);
				$data .= $chunk;
				$bytes -= strlen($chunk);
			}
			$this->_pos = ftell($this->_fd);

			return $data;
		}
		else
			return '';
	}

	function seekto($pos)
	{
		fseek($this->_fd, $pos);
		$this->_pos = ftell($this->_fd);
		return $this->_pos;
	}

	function currentpos()
	{
		return $this->_pos;
	}

	function length()
	{
		return $this->_length;
	}

	function close()
	{
		fclose($this->_fd);
	}

}

// Preloads entire file in memory first, then creates a StringReader
// over it (it assumes knowledge of StringReader internals)
class CachedFileReader extends StringReader
{
	function CachedFileReader($filename)
	{
		parent::StringReader();

		if (file_exists($filename))
		{

			$length = filesize($filename);
			$fd = fopen($filename, 'rb');

			if (!$fd)
			{
				$this->error = 3; // Cannot read file, probably permissions
				return false;
			}
			$this->_str = fread($fd, $length);
			fclose($fd);

		}
		else
		{
			$this->error = 2; // File doesn't exist
			return false;
		}
	}
}
?>

我自已写了几个方法,封装相关的操作:

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/** * 初始化 * * @param string $locale */
function l10n_init($locale)
{
	// 加载第三方包
	require_once ('./streams.php');
	require_once ('./gettext.php');

	$moFile = new FileReader(ROOT . "/languages/{$locale}/zh_CN.mo");

	$gettext = new gettext_reader($moFile);
	return $gettext;
}

/** * 返回短语 * * @param string $str * * @return string */
function __($str)
{
	global $zwframe;
	return $zwframe->l10n_init->translate($str);
}

/** * 打印短语 * * @param string $str */
function _e($str)
{
	echo __($str);
}

使用方法:

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$zwframe->l10n_init = l10n_init($options['language']);

需要返回短语时使用函数 __(); 需要打印短语时使用函数 _e();

来源: WordPress中的国际化(l18n)与本地化(l10n)实现 | 火星时代IT开发

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